pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Three more goodies to link to:

I've uploaded to my site two PDFs, one is the substitution cypher written about by Venerable Bede (under 8th century) and the other is a rather large PDF with the manual alphabets of Thesaurus Artificiosae Memoriae (1579), Refugium Infirmorum (1593), Reducción de las letras y arte para enseñar a hablar a los mudos (1620), Didascalocophus (1680), Digiti Lingua (1698), modern ASL and modern BANZSL in a big table for easy comparison. (Stuffed in under '16th century' although I'm not sure that's the right place.)

Yes, a lot of it is 17th century, but I think it needs to be there -- there are differences between de Yebra and Bonet's alphabets, and there are differences between them and modern ASL, even though so many publications imply they are all the same. Dalgarno and Digiti Lingua are included because I'm horribly biased and think it's important to know where BSL-derived fingerspelling seems to have originated.

The third link, is GoogleBooks has put the entirety of Libro llamado Refugium infirmorum, muy útil y provechoso para todo género de gente, en el cual se contienen muchos avisos espirituales para socorro de los afligidos enfermos, y para ayudar a bien morir a los que están en lo último de su vida; con un alfabeto de San buenaventura para hablar por la mano.(Book called refuge of the sick, very useful and beneficial for all kinds of people, in which is contained much spiritual advice for assistance of distressed sick persons, and for helping those who are at the end of their lives to die well; with Saint Bonaventure's alphabet to speak by the hand) online, and can be downloaded as a PDF.
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
GoogleBooks now has a version of the 1620 text you can download as a PDF.

I'm still hoping somewhere there is an online version of the 1890 English translation by Dixon (Simplification of the letters of the Alphabet and Method of Teaching Deaf-Mutes to Speak), but I can't find it. Neither can I find any full online versions of either of Bulwer's books. Anyone else seen them?

Oh, and three more images of pre-1600 Korean women are now up here. (Two 14th century, and one redrawing of a teeny tiny [5mm wide in my source print-out] 16th century figure.) Just so the people who read this blog for costume details don't feel left out. :)
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This is from about 2004 (according to this article [PDF]), but the BBC program See Hear had a special on the history of BSL and it looks like it included a re-enactment of the wedding of Ursula Russell and Thomas Tilsye.

And check out the fingerspelling quiz, which compares modern BANZSL fingerspelling with the 17th century Digiti Lingua! (scroll down to 'England'.)
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
"A Deaf-Mute from the Palace" MS. Bodl. Or 430:1588 f.50r dated to 1588
http://livingpast.com/turkp.html

"Imperial Mute" from the Rålamb Costume Book pp. 35, 94. Dated 1657-58.
http://www.baarnhielm.net/~gorbaa/draktbok/eng/35.htm
http://www.baarnhielm.net/~gorbaa/draktbok/eng/94.htm

As pointed out by Miles (2000), these were men who were to be feared -- they couldn't be bribed by the enemy (since they couldn't overhear conversations. Nor could they tell you who sent them), and were often used as assassins. Sultan Mehmet III killed his relatives via strangulation by the dilsiz. (There seems to be some debate as to if these people were intentionally maimed or not. Miles in this very large history of Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey strongly implies there is no evidence either way.)

Miles, M. (2000). Signing in the Seraglio: Mutes, dwarfs and gestures at the Ottoman Court 1500-1700, Disability & Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, 115-134

History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, Volume 1
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
I *think* this story is about a the Tudor-era Lord North (not sure which one):

p.162 of Three men of the Tudor time (1911):

"In the early
1598 part of 1598, the Queen, hearing that her trusty old servant was taken stone deaf ' so as he could not here by no means any speech,' sent him this recipe. ' Bake a little loafe of Beane flowr, and being whot, rive it in halves, and to ech half pour in three or four sponefulls of bitter almonds*; then clapp both ye halves to both your eares at going to bed, kepe them close and kepe your head warme.' We are told that the patient was completely cured by this truly sovereign remedy
..."

This remedy was apparently then passed on to Henry Gurney (1548-1616) as a cure for his deafness.
Source: p.61 Brian Grant The Quiet Ear: Deafness in Literature (London: Andre Deutsch, 1987)

* The oil of bitter almonds was also used by Hooke in December 1672 in an attempt to cure his tinnitus.
Source: Cockayne, Emily 'Experiences of the deaf in early modern England'. Historical Journal, 46:3 (2003), 493-510.

Although a modern source, Johann Christoph Sauer's Compendius Herbal (GoogleBooks) explains using humoral theory, that the bitter almonds are bitter-tasting and caustic. 'Bitter almonds have the faculty of cleansing, of opening, of loosening obstructions, of promoting urine, and of allaying windiness.'

Edited: Fixed typos.
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Lois Bragg. 1994. Disfigurement, Disability, and Dis-integration in Sturlunga saga alvíssmál 4: 15-32
http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~alvismal/4disfig.pdf
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Cool video in BSL: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ouch/features/sign_names.shtml

A bit of information about Auslan as an endangered language:
http://hdl.handle.net/2123/1289

Still need to track down this book: http://nla.gov.au/anbd.bib-an24315816

EEBO has Digiti Lingua from 1698, with the first (verified) drawing of two-handed fingerspelling.
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Because there's only so much I can discuss about herbicides without going well and truly over the word limit...

There are some truly interesting and strange things that people combine in the attempt to put together a Deaf history. One of the more interesting combinations has been mentioning ciphers and number/letter substitutions.

So, I start looking for information about Giovanni Battista della Porta (1535-c.1610) and can't find anything about a particular cipher he invented where pointing to different parts of the body indicated a letter. But, it's easier to find more general stuff about his work in cryptography.

Which then leads to volvelles in code-breaking or astronomy, and sort of were pop-up books for adults in a way. :)

Thesaurus Artificiosae Memoriae from 1579 by Cosmas Rosselius is online as a Googlebooks PDF. Assuming that you don't want to search through the entire book looking for pictures of an alphabet that uses the hands (Like della Porta he has a 'pointing at body parts' one too), then pp.248-252 of the PDF is what you're looking for.

The Thesaurus is considered to be the first pictorial representation of 'fingerspelling' as such.

Pictures:
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v244/quokkaqueen/ign/books1.jpg
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v244/quokkaqueen/ign/books2.jpg
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v244/quokkaqueen/ign/books3.jpg
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v244/quokkaqueen/ign/books4.jpg
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v244/quokkaqueen/ign/books5.png

Edit: I'm naughty and forgot to mention my source.
Per Eriksson, James Schmale [trans.] The History of Deaf People: A Source Book
(O:rebro, Sweden: Daufr, 1998)
ISBN-10: 9163068222
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Juan C. Conde-Silvestre, (2001) The code and context of Monasteriales Indicia: a semiotic analysis of late Anglo-Saxon monastic sign language Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 36 pp. 145-169
Naturally I find the free online version after tracking down the physical journal.

David Sherlock (1989) "Anglo-Saxon monastic sign language at Christchuch, Canterbury", Archaeologia Cantiana 107: 1-27.
I'll be visiting at the state library next week! So exciting!

P Ekman (1969) "The repertoire of non-verbal communication: Categories, origins, usage and coding", Semiotica 1: 49-98.
Is at my uni library, so I'll look at it later this week.

Oh, and can anyone explain why my bone belt buckle made it through quarantine without any comment, but my sewing shears were inspected? I would have thought it the other way around.
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
F. Kluge (1885) "Zur Geschichte der Zeichensprache. Angelsächsische Indicia Monasterialia" in Internationale Zeitschrift für allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (2) 117-140

Is available as one of the articles in the Internet Archive scan of the journal.

The first part is about the Monasteriales Indicia, with the Old English transcribed and translated into modern German. Generally, all later translations follow Kluge's numbering system.
The second part is the grammar, since that's what Kluge seems to have spent most of his research on (judging by other articles he has written.)
The third is the Syon monastery sign list.
The fourth part is an English summary, which is interesting, but there is much better modern scholarship available,

There is also contemporary commentary about Kluge's article in:
Willem S. Logemann,(1889) "Zu den Indicia Monasterialia." Englische Studien 12, 305-307.
Once again, the Internet Archive comes to the rescue, here.

Enjoy!
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Fray Melchor de Yebra, (1593) 'Refugium Infirmorum'
http://www.cultura-sorda.eu/resources/Yebra_REFUGIUM_INFIRMORUM_1593.pdf

From the notes of Chapter 2 of Susan Plann (1997) A Silent Minority: Deaf Education in Spain 1550 - 1835
The complete title was Libro llamado Refugium infirmorum, muy útil y provechoso para todo género de gente, en el cual se contienen muchos avisos espirituales para socorro de los afligidos enfermos, y para ayudar a bien morir a los que están en lo último de su vida; con un alfabeto de San buenaventura para hablar por la mano(Book called refuge of the sick, very useful and beneficial for all kinds of people, in which is contained much spiritual advice for assistance of distressed sick persons, and for helping those who are at the end of their lives to die well; with Saint Bonaventure's alphabet to speak by the hand).

Edit: For people not overly phased by Spanish, cultura-sorda.eu has a lot of history articles:
http://www.cultura-sorda.eu/21.html

AND The Bibliotheca Nacional de España has an online version of
Juan Pablo Bonet (1620) Reducción de las letras y arte para enseñar a hablar a los mudos (Reduction of letters and art for teaching dumb people to speak)
http://bibliotecadigitalhispanica.bne.es/view/action/nmets.do?DOCCHOICE=180918.xml&dvs=1219704479871~693&locale=en_US&search_terms=&usePid1=true&usePid2=true
and
http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/signos/12826516449063734198624/index.htm

Johann Host von Romberch (1533) Congestorium Artificiose Memorie
http://gallica2.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k594964.r=.langEN
and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:16_103p_from_ralph_major_slide_collection.jpg

Edit: Not an documents, but there is tthis guy who writes very interesting articles:
Miles, M. 2007-08. “Disability and Deafness in East Asia: Social and Educational Responses, from Antiquity to Recent Times. A bibliography of European-language materials with introduction and some annotation.”
http://www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles200708.pdf
http://www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles200708.html

Miles, M. 2005. "Deaf People Living and Communicating in African Histories, c. 960s – 1960s.
http://www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles2005a.html

Miles, M. 2001. "Martin Luther and Childhood Disability in 16th Century Germany: What did he write? What did he say?" Journal of Religion, Disability & Health 5 (4) pp. 5-36
http://www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles2005b.html

Miles, M. 2000 "Signing in the Seraglio: mutes, dwarfs and jesters at the Ottoman Court 1500 - 1700" Disability & Society, 15(1) 2000, pp.115 - 134
http://www.independentliving.org/docs5/mmiles2.html

which goes together well with:
Alejandro Oviedo Los sordos en la corte turca (Siglos XVI al XX)
http://www.cultura-sorda.eu/resources/Oviedo_sordos_en_la_corte_turca_2008.pdf

The BBC has a really brief summary of the development of BSL from the 16th century. A slightly more detailed version is here

Some books that look promising:
http://snipurl.com/3jpps [books_google_com_au]
Many Ways to be Deaf
http://snipurl.com/3jppz [books_google_com_au]
A Revolution in Language
http://snipurl.com/3jpq5 [books_google_com_au]
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Some very cool articles, by Professor Laura-Ann Petitto about the development of sign language in babies. Especially the development of handshapes considered to be 'babbling'.
http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~petitto/

[livejournal.com profile] mr_bassman and [livejournal.com profile] mrsbrown, did your little one 'babble' in Auslan? Any other readers have bi-lingual sign babblers?
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
17th century texts mostly today.

Frontispiece to John Bulwers' 1642 Philocophus, showing bone conduction.
and a lone page with what might be fingerspelling.


Athanasius Kircher, 1673 Phonurgia nova sive coniugium mechanico-physicum artis & naturae paranympha phonosophia concinnatum Entire book scanned as PDF.
There's more about how he described in detail hearing aids at the Becker Medical Library page
Edit: August 2009. BibliOdyssey has some pictures from Kitcher's 1650 Musurgia Universalis which seems to also show the 'hearing aid' rooms and funnels in a house and workshop?

Johannes Conrad Ammans' Surdus Loquens: The Talking Deaf Man, 1692.
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Via [livejournal.com profile] sonjaaa: The Deaf Superbowl ad.

It's in ASL, so I need those subtitles. Still, it is a cool concept.
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
I'm guessing these are all circa 19th century, but they're very cool

Finnish ear trumpet (and other things from the Helsinki University Museum)
Tortoise shell ear trumpet
Conch shell ear trumpet
A 19th century rams horn
A fake abalone shell
(The last two are also in a book at la trobe uni of the CID-Goldstein collection, but the photos online are in colour.)

Might be interesting for [livejournal.com profile] hometime, Concealed hearing devices of the 20th century. The 19th century devices are a lot stranger, and include hearing fans and bone conduction.

Also, there are references to 17th century books here.

Edit Found a weird reference while trying to track down the 'ear-trumpets' from Pompeii. According to Frederick Chamier:

"Another article has not yet come to light in the surgical department, although the discoveries of 1853 are proofs that the modern instruments for the extraction of the stone, and other serious operations were exactly the same two thousand years ago, excepting of the neatness of manufacture and the handles.... But here, again, is a very curious and almost incredible circumstance...[I did not find], although I spent days at the museum, an ear-trumpet, or any thing resembling an instrument for the conveyance of sound. The Romans were surely not exempt from the three warnings of age!"

Source: My travels, or, An unsentimental journey through France, Switzerland and Italy, published 1855 p.311
Available via Google Books.

I have no idea why there is an obsession with ear-trumpets, I do know that Roman trumpet-looking metal things have been interpreted as not ear-trumpets, but for allowing more light into the ear canal so that a doctor could see what was happening in there. (There is a fancy name for it.) It may be that this is all related.

Aargh!

Dec. 7th, 2007 10:43 am
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
I'm sorry, but this article is infuriating.

Albert Mudry and Léon Dodelé "History of the technological development of air conduction hearing aids" Journal of Laryngology & Otology (2000), 114: 418-423

Let's look at what this history says about pre-18th century hearing aids:

This method [ear trumpets] has been used from the beginning of time by hunters and warriors. It is quite probable that deaf people of ancient times and the middle ages must have thought of placing the mouthpiece of a horn or a bugle to their ear for purposes of ampliŽcation.5
Athanasius Kircher was the fiŽrst to write an essay on the hearing aid, and this was published in 1673. It is here that he described the famous Ellipsis otica, considered as the Žfirst acoustic prosthesis.6

The two references are to French texts that I can't read.
But, Kircher made a trumpet 16 feet long, embedded in his work room wall so he could talk to people outside.

The earlier reference by Bacon to 'ear-spectacles' in 1627 pre-dates Kircher, as does Magia Naturalis which is 16th century proper.

It is missing out on so much information, about air-conduction aids that it is really annoying. The majority of the information I have been able to find starts at the 18th century, and hardly any sources that talk about what medieval man may have been doing give references.

It's not all bad though. I've found some possible leads to follow up:
Leibniz's Project of a Public Exhibition of Scientific Inventions
A History of Inventions, Discoveries and Origins
The senses in late medieval England
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
About 6 months ago, I posted some information in a Yahoo Group about renaissance hearing aids, and I've only just gotton back to the topic.

Two books at La Trobe uni I need to look at, since every source refers back to this author:
http://library.latrobe.edu.au/record=b1517771 and http://library.latrobe.edu.au/record=b1503014
Kenneth Walter Berger is the author.

Francis Bacon's Sylva sylvarum in 1627 mentions 'ear spectacles', but I don't know the specifics. I'll have to go to the uni and check.

Girolama Cardano in the 1550s wrote about bone conduction of sound in De subtilitate libri XXI but I can't find a copy in Victoria or online.
Edit: In Latin, but there is a scan at the ECHO Project.

Giovanni Battista Porta in 1588 wrote about 'auricle'/'ear scoop' style hearing aids, where you wore big animal ears made of wood over your own ears. Book 20 chapter 5 of the 17th century translation.

Bacon also wrote about how loud noises may cause deafness, which is rather revolutionary since a lot of the cures involved making loud noises at the patient. (Lots of tertiary sources say that so much noise was made that the patients' ears could bleed, but I haven't found a primary account of that as yet.)

There is also a little bit on teaching the blind to read and write before Braille
pearl: Black and white outline of a toadstool with paint splatters. (Default)
Teresa de Cartagena, born circa 1425 wrote about her experiences of being deaf in Arboleda de los enfermos, there is a translation at Monash uni.

Dayle Seidenspinner-Núñez The writings of Teresa de Cartagena: translated with introduction, notes and interpretive essay. (Woodbridge : D. S. Brewer, 1998.)

R. reminded me about the large number of artists during the renaissance who were deaf.
Read more... )

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